International Relations Theory for the Twenty-First Century


Salah satu buku yang menarik untuk dibaca bagi penstudi Hubungan Internasional. Teori merupakan landasan untuk memahami penomena hubungan internasional yang tidak lain merupakan interaksi antar bangsa di dalam dunia modern. Interaksi antar bangsa itu sendiri merupakan fenomena yang merupakan refleksi dari kepercayaan dan budaya individual yang berbeda-beda. Oleh sebab itulah kemudian bermunculkan perspektif dalam melihat interaksi antar bangsa ini.

Martin Griffiths mengumpulkan sedikitnya sembilan perspektif teori Ilmu Hubungan Internasional yang pantas diketahui para penstudi. Bab pertama mengulas bagaimana fenomena internasional ini dipandang dari berbagai kerang fikir yang berbeda. Dari sudut pandang berbeda itulah lahir berbagai teori besar yang mampu menjelaskan apa yang sedang terjadi di dunia. Karena sifat ilmu pengetahuan itu berkembang, maka berbagai teori itu merupakan refleksi perkembangan dari ilmu HI itu sendiri.

Griffiths menempatkan Realisme sebagai titik awal dalam kajian teori HI ini. Realisme menurut Colin Elman State behavior is driven by leaders’ flawed human nature or by the preemptive unpleasantness mandated by an anarchic international system. Selfish human appetites for power, or the need to accumulate the wherewithal to be secure in a self-help world, explain the seemingly endless succession of wars and conquest. Perspektif realisme dibagi dua besar yakni classical realism and neorealism.

Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan Liberal internationalism atau Internasionalisme Liberal yang berakar dari cara pandang terhadap manusia yang menekankan kepada kerjasama sama. Menurut John MacMillan, Underlying liberal internationalism – the projection of liberal thought and political principles
to the international realm – is the assumption that one can apply reason to extend the possibilities for individual and collective self-rule, or freedom

Teori besar ketiga disebut sebagai Marxisme yang memandang bahwa dunia adalah pertarungan antara kapitalisme yang mengeksploitasi manusia dengan perlawanan kelas. Menurut Mark Rupertteori ini berbasiskan kepada asumsi Historical materialism suggests that states and systems of interstate and transnational power relations are embedded in and
(re-)produced through systems of relations that encompass (among other things) the social organization of production. The latter is itself structured according to relations of class (and, many contemporary Marxists acknowledge,

Selanjutnya Griffiths memuat Critical theory yang biasanya disimpan oleh pakar lain di bagian paling belakang. Intinya teori ini menggugat semua kemapanan dalam bidang ilmu dan meyakini bahwa cara pandang terhadap teori itu dipengaruhi oleh politik. Dalam bab ini Andrew Linklater menjelaskan bahwa Marx and Engels argued that the struggle between the bourgeoisie (the class that owns the means of production) and the proletariat (the class that has to sell its labor-power in order to survive) is the central dynamic of capitalist societies. They believed that class conflict would destroy capitalism and lead to a socialist system in which the forces of production would be used to benefit the whole of society rather than to maximize profit for the bourgeoisie. They also had a vision of global political progress in which the whole of humanity would come to be freely associated in a socialist world order.

Konstruktivisme yang sedang menjadi trend sekarang ini ketika tulisan ini dibuat disimpan selanjutnya sebagai bahan kajian menjelaskan teori-teori HI. Menurut Andrew Bradley Phillips (Hal 60), Constructivists are defined by their emphasis on the socially constructed character of actors’ interests and identities, and by their concomitant faith in the susceptibility to change of even the most seemingly immutable practices and institutions in world politics.

The English School yang sesuai dengan namanya berasal dari Inggris. Dalam Mazhab Inggris yang ditulis Alex J. Bellamy ini dikatakan bahwa inti dari konsepk mazhab ini adalah international system’, ‘international society’ and ‘world society’

Nama teori Poststrucutalism mungkin belum banyak yang menyinggung namun Jenny Edkins menjelaskan (Hal 88)Poststructuralism is probably best described as a worldview (or even an antiworldview). Scholars working within this worldview are skeptical of the possibility of overarching theoretical explanations for things that happen in the world. They prefer not to look for grand theories but rather to examine in detail how the world comes to be seen and thought of in particular ways at specific historical junctures and to study how particular social practices – things people do – work in terms of the relations of power and the ways of thinking that such practices produce or support.

Cynthia Enloe yang mengulas mengenai Fenimisme ini menjelaskan bahwa Feminism puts women – their experiences, their ideas, their actions, thoughts about them, efforts to convince and manipulate them – on center stage, while feminism also makes ‘men-as-men’ visible and masculinity problematic (Hal 99).

Rita Abrahamsen menjelaskan bahwa perspektif Postcolonialism atau Pasca Kolonialisme sebagai Postcolonial approaches often proceed precisely from a recognition of this Western centric character of mainstream IR, arguing that the discipline’s interpretations of inter national affairs are profoundly grounded in Western experiences and discursive practices. Dengan situasi itu maka lahirnya pandangan yang mendasarkan kepada perspektif non Barat.

Buku ini memberikan beberapa pemahaman mengenai teori-teori besar dalam Hubungan Internasional. Meskipun merupakan kumpulan tulisan namun kekuatan buku ini adalah ditulis oleh mereka yang mengenal teori-teori tersebut. Bahkan seperti Andrew Linklater adalah salah satu intelektual yang mendukung salah satu perspektif sehingga penjelasannya komprehensif mencerminkan cara pandang Critical theory. ***


Asep Setiawan & Endang Sulastri
University of Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Indonesia;



Indonesia‟s foreign policy based on national interest is confirmed in the opening of 1945 Constitution. In Joko
Widodo‟s government focus on protection of citizen becomes priority. In addition the government also focuses
on maintaining Indonesia‟s sovereignty and intensifying economic diplomacy.The Foreign Ministry translates of
what concept of people-oriented foreign policy becomes pro people diplomacy and down to earth diplomacy. What is the meaning of this concept and what are implications of the policy are investigated in this research. In order to understand the policy this research looks at some cases of migrant worker particularly in Malaysia. The research uses qualitative approach with descriptive analytic in nature. Data collections for the research are interview, observation, documentation studies and focus group discussion. Source of data was collected from Indonesian Foreign Policy Ministry, Indonesia‟s‟ diplomatic office in Kuala Lumpur and Johor, Malaysia. Data analysis for the research is also used qualitative approach. Research found that Foreign Ministry set up strategy to achieve people oriented foreign policy focus with concept of people‟s diplomacy. Protection citizen set in priority with enlargement of organization and fund increased. It shows there is sense of urgency in
application to protect Indonesia’s overseas particularly migrant worker. Benefit of the policy can be found from
many cases in Kuala Lumpur and Johor where diplomats in charge of helping the worker actively find solution. However due the giant scale of the cases protecting people policy is not easy task for the government.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, Indonesia, Oriented People, Pro People, Diplomacy, Migrant Worker, Malaysia,